This is Criminology Final year Project

Project Final year 333

Despite all the significant roles "ideal"" of police institution, there exist a strained relationship
between the police and the public which affects police image and credibility in preventing crime.
The role of the police in maintaining law and order as often been questioned by the public.
Various reasons especially ineffectiveness, brutality and corruption, made the Nigerian public
intensely distrusted the Nigerian police and citizens appeared to prefer handling the issue of their
security themselves, sometimes going as far as taking the laws into their own hands.

 

 

1.2 Statement of the Problem


The Nigeria Police suffers from multiple public confidence crises even though there seems to be
some measure of sympathy for the way the Nigerian authorities treat the force, Public negative
attitude of the police can be informed by the involvement of the police in politics. They become
politicized, hence very partisan in carrying out some of their normal duties. In Nigeria, the police
are always ready to protect the government in power to the detriment of the public it serves. With
nature of the experiences individual members of the public may diverge from this understanding
and likely it will affect the perception of the police as an institution. It is critical for police
Success that it is not perceived as a partisan institution that protects the rich and the powerful
while antagonizing the poor and the weak.


The stained relationship existing between the police and the community can be attributed to the
involvement of the police in politics. They become politicized, hence very partisan in carrying
out their normal duties. In Nigeria, the police are always ready to protect the government in
power to the detriment of the public it serves. Clinard and Albolt (1973: p 41) observed that the
police treat the middle and upper class with respect, because they see them as politically
powerful and therefore worthy of respect.


There exist a strained relationship between the police and the public which affects police image
and credibility in preventing crime. The role of the police in maintaining law and order as often
been questioned by the public. The public negative attitude of the police is informed by the
involvement of policemen with partiality of the police in cases to favour the rich, police
brutality, and taking of bribe as well the poor response to distress call to mention but a few.


 

The police are supposed to be polite, obedient, law abiding, intelligent, calm, and educated for them to be able to perform up to expectation. But in Nigeria, members of the public always see the police with disdain and disrespect because of bad attitudes. The public mostly dislike the Nigerian Police Force (NPF) because they (the police) are parading themselves as unfriendly beggars, money extorters, intimidators, and so on (particularly to the underprivileged), and as Such, the public do not have confidence in them. White, et al (1991) explained that the relationship between the police and members of the public in Nigeria have tended to be characterized by deep-rooted conflict, prejudice, corruption, and violence. In the same line of thought, findings of Hills (2008) revealed that despite decades of police assistance and the recent introduction of reform plans, Nigeria's public police remain notoriously brutal and corrupt. She attributes that to many factors including a challenging environment; under-resourced others incapable of effectively policing the most populous poverty-stricken Black nation on earth; high rates of urbanization and a volatile underclass of unemployed youths; the lack of social cohesion and traditional control mechanisms; insufficient thought to public order strategy, unlawful arrests and detention; slow response of the police during widespread rioting; and excessive use of discriminate force. If this remains the public perception of the police as an organization then it would continue to encounter difficulties in its numerous tasks of enforcing law and order and ensuring the security of life and property.

 

Corruption is a major factor that plays out in the bad Police -Public Relations. Nigeria has a widespread reputation for corruption. In 2000, it appeared at the top of Transparency

International's list of the most corrupt countries and it continues to be regarded as a bastion of fraud, graft, and deceit (Transparency International, 2009, Smith, 2010). In Nigeria today, the problems of development are not necessarily due to the scarcity of the natural factors of

 

production but due to corruption which has eaten deep into the fabric of Nigerian society, and at present, one of the greatest obstacles to national development (Abdullahi 2002:9). In the language of cause and effect, corruption is often portrayed as an independent variable inhibiting the desired and supposedly dependent outcomes of democracy and development, including improving health outcomes (Transparency International, 2006).

 

Findings of Hills (2008) confirmed that corruption is endemic at every level, with the police regularly heading the 'Transparency International's list of the most corrupt institutions in Nigeria. An average police man in Nigeria is exploited right from his/her recruitment. S/he might not be the best fit for the job, but paying-off can get him there. At the police training colleges, the quality and quantity of food they are served is nothing to write home about; the allowances are not assured of being fully paid and as at when due; during passing-out bribes may be given for "better" posting, before and upon arriving at respective areas of primary asS1gnment may attract a continuation of the trend; and even "returns" might be solicited to the senior ranking officers. At retirement, no one can guarantee that entitlements will be given without giving out bribes. In the event a police otficer dies while in service, the so-called "commissioner's regret allowance" is not enough for the deceased officers tamily to sustain a living for the period of mourning, needless say there's a befitting burial, if the deccased's culture permits. These frustrations usually contribute to the increased corrupt practices of the police- something that is in the fabrics of the police, at the best in the public's eyes.

 

In line with the above and by implication therefore, unless and until there are trust, confidence, and cooperation, the current deteriorating relationship between the police and the public in Nigeria will continue and reverting to smooth relationship will certainly be in vain. It is necessary for the police to evolve ways by which the members of the public would have confidence in its operations and activities, recognize its importance to achieve its goal of maintaining a secure, peaceful and orderly society.

 

1.3 Research Questions

In line with the specific objective, the following questions will be raised to serve as a guide to the study;

 

  1. What is the public perception of people towards the police?
  2. What are the impacts of police public relation?
  3. What are the problems of police public relation?
  4. How can police public relation be enhanced?

 

1.4 Aim and Objectives of the Study

The broad aim of the study is to examine police-community relation in Kano Municipal, and the specific objectives are;

 

  1. To determine the public perception towards police.
  2. To examine the impact of police public relation
  3. To identify the problems of police public relation.
  4. Recommend measures to enhance police public relation

 

1.5 Significance of the Study

 

The need for the study arises from the realization that good police public relations are a catalyst for the image and performance of the Nigerian police. A study on the analysis of police public relations is a step in the right directions. The study possesses some academic value and would be of interest to student's individuals, academics, police officers and the general public.

 

 

 

It will also be a contribution to knowledge and literature on the subject matters as well as a guide for further study.

 

It is hoped that the result of the study will be an eye opener to the nature of relationship between the police and public a veritable material to the Nigerian police force in solving their image problem and enhancing police public relations.

 

1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study

This study will focus on police-community relations in Kano Municipal, Kano State. Therefore, the study 1s limited, in terms of conceptual coverage putting in mind factors such as timeframe.

 

1.7 Operationalization of Key Concepts

The Police: The police are law enforcement agency created by government to protect lite and property of its citizens.

 

 

Despite all the significant roles "ideal"" of police institution, there exist a strained relationship
between the police and the public which affects police image and credibility in preventing crime.
The role of the police in maintaining law and order as often been questioned by the public.
Various reasons especially ineffectiveness, brutality and corruption, made the Nigerian public
intensely distrusted the Nigerian police and citizens appeared to prefer handling the issue of their
security themselves, sometimes going as far as taking the laws into their own hands.

 

 

1.2 Statement of the Problem


The Nigeria Police suffers from multiple public confidence crises even though there seems to be
some measure of sympathy for the way the Nigerian authorities treat the force, Public negative
attitude of the police can be informed by the involvement of the police in politics. They become
politicized, hence very partisan in carrying out some of their normal duties. In Nigeria, the police
are always ready to protect the government in power to the detriment of the public it serves. With
nature of the experiences individual members of the public may diverge from this understanding
and likely it will affect the perception of the police as an institution. It is critical for police
Success that it is not perceived as a partisan institution that protects the rich and the powerful
while antagonizing the poor and the weak.


The stained relationship existing between the police and the community can be attributed to the
involvement of the police in politics. They become politicized, hence very partisan in carrying
out their normal duties. In Nigeria, the police are always ready to protect the government in
power to the detriment of the public it serves. Clinard and Albolt (1973: p 41) observed that the
police treat the middle and upper class with respect, because they see them as politically
powerful and therefore worthy of respect.


There exist a strained relationship between the police and the public which affects police image
and credibility in preventing crime. The role of the police in maintaining law and order as often
been questioned by the public. The public negative attitude of the police is informed by the
involvement of policemen with partiality of the police in cases to favour the rich, police
brutality, and taking of bribe as well the poor response to distress call to mention but a few.


 

The police are supposed to be polite, obedient, law abiding, intelligent, calm, and educated for them to be able to perform up to expectation. But in Nigeria, members of the public always see the police with disdain and disrespect because of bad attitudes. The public mostly dislike the Nigerian Police Force (NPF) because they (the police) are parading themselves as unfriendly beggars, money extorters, intimidators, and so on (particularly to the underprivileged), and as Such, the public do not have confidence in them. White, et al (1991) explained that the relationship between the police and members of the public in Nigeria have tended to be characterized by deep-rooted conflict, prejudice, corruption, and violence. In the same line of thought, findings of Hills (2008) revealed that despite decades of police assistance and the recent introduction of reform plans, Nigeria's public police remain notoriously brutal and corrupt. She attributes that to many factors including a challenging environment; under-resourced others incapable of effectively policing the most populous poverty-stricken Black nation on earth; high rates of urbanization and a volatile underclass of unemployed youths; the lack of social cohesion and traditional control mechanisms; insufficient thought to public order strategy, unlawful arrests and detention; slow response of the police during widespread rioting; and excessive use of discriminate force. If this remains the public perception of the police as an organization then it would continue to encounter difficulties in its numerous tasks of enforcing law and order and ensuring the security of life and property.

 

Corruption is a major factor that plays out in the bad Police -Public Relations. Nigeria has a widespread reputation for corruption. In 2000, it appeared at the top of Transparency

International's list of the most corrupt countries and it continues to be regarded as a bastion of fraud, graft, and deceit (Transparency International, 2009, Smith, 2010). In Nigeria today, the problems of development are not necessarily due to the scarcity of the natural factors of

 

production but due to corruption which has eaten deep into the fabric of Nigerian society, and at present, one of the greatest obstacles to national development (Abdullahi 2002:9). In the language of cause and effect, corruption is often portrayed as an independent variable inhibiting the desired and supposedly dependent outcomes of democracy and development, including improving health outcomes (Transparency International, 2006).

 

Findings of Hills (2008) confirmed that corruption is endemic at every level, with the police regularly heading the 'Transparency International's list of the most corrupt institutions in Nigeria. An average police man in Nigeria is exploited right from his/her recruitment. S/he might not be the best fit for the job, but paying-off can get him there. At the police training colleges, the quality and quantity of food they are served is nothing to write home about; the allowances are not assured of being fully paid and as at when due; during passing-out bribes may be given for "better" posting, before and upon arriving at respective areas of primary asS1gnment may attract a continuation of the trend; and even "returns" might be solicited to the senior ranking officers. At retirement, no one can guarantee that entitlements will be given without giving out bribes. In the event a police otficer dies while in service, the so-called "commissioner's regret allowance" is not enough for the deceased officers tamily to sustain a living for the period of mourning, needless say there's a befitting burial, if the deccased's culture permits. These frustrations usually contribute to the increased corrupt practices of the police- something that is in the fabrics of the police, at the best in the public's eyes.

 

In line with the above and by implication therefore, unless and until there are trust, confidence, and cooperation, the current deteriorating relationship between the police and the public in Nigeria will continue and reverting to smooth relationship will certainly be in vain. It is necessary for the police to evolve ways by which the members of the public would have confidence in its operations and activities, recognize its importance to achieve its goal of maintaining a secure, peaceful and orderly society.

 

1.3 Research Questions

In line with the specific objective, the following questions will be raised to serve as a guide to the study;

 

  1. What is the public perception of people towards the police?
  2. What are the impacts of police public relation?
  3. What are the problems of police public relation?
  4. How can police public relation be enhanced?

 

1.4 Aim and Objectives of the Study

The broad aim of the study is to examine police-community relation in Kano Municipal, and the specific objectives are;

 

  1. To determine the public perception towards police.
  2. To examine the impact of police public relation
  3. To identify the problems of police public relation.
  4. Recommend measures to enhance police public relation

 

1.5 Significance of the Study

 

The need for the study arises from the realization that good police public relations are a catalyst for the image and performance of the Nigerian police. A study on the analysis of police public relations is a step in the right directions. The study possesses some academic value and would be of interest to student's individuals, academics, police officers and the general public.

 

 

 

It will also be a contribution to knowledge and literature on the subject matters as well as a guide for further study.

 

It is hoped that the result of the study will be an eye opener to the nature of relationship between the police and public a veritable material to the Nigerian police force in solving their image problem and enhancing police public relations.

 

1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study

This study will focus on police-community relations in Kano Municipal, Kano State. Therefore, the study 1s limited, in terms of conceptual coverage putting in mind factors such as timeframe.

 

1.7 Operationalization of Key Concepts

The Police: The police are law enforcement agency created by government to protect lite and property of its citizens.

 

Despite all the significant roles "ideal"" of police institution, there exist a strained relationship
between the police and the public which affects police image and credibility in preventing crime.
The role of the police in maintaining law and order as often been questioned by the public.
Various reasons especially ineffectiveness, brutality and corruption, made the Nigerian public
intensely distrusted the Nigerian police and citizens appeared to prefer handling the issue of their
security themselves, sometimes going as far as taking the laws into their own hands.

 

 

1.2 Statement of the Problem


The Nigeria Police suffers from multiple public confidence crises even though there seems to be
some measure of sympathy for the way the Nigerian authorities treat the force, Public negative
attitude of the police can be informed by the involvement of the police in politics. They become
politicized, hence very partisan in carrying out some of their normal duties. In Nigeria, the police
are always ready to protect the government in power to the detriment of the public it serves. With
nature of the experiences individual members of the public may diverge from this understanding
and likely it will affect the perception of the police as an institution. It is critical for police
Success that it is not perceived as a partisan institution that protects the rich and the powerful
while antagonizing the poor and the weak.


The stained relationship existing between the police and the community can be attributed to the
involvement of the police in politics. They become politicized, hence very partisan in carrying
out their normal duties. In Nigeria, the police are always ready to protect the government in
power to the detriment of the public it serves. Clinard and Albolt (1973: p 41) observed that the
police treat the middle and upper class with respect, because they see them as politically
powerful and therefore worthy of respect.


There exist a strained relationship between the police and the public which affects police image
and credibility in preventing crime. The role of the police in maintaining law and order as often
been questioned by the public. The public negative attitude of the police is informed by the
involvement of policemen with partiality of the police in cases to favour the rich, police
brutality, and taking of bribe as well the poor response to distress call to mention but a few.


 

The police are supposed to be polite, obedient, law abiding, intelligent, calm, and educated for them to be able to perform up to expectation. But in Nigeria, members of the public always see the police with disdain and disrespect because of bad attitudes. The public mostly dislike the Nigerian Police Force (NPF) because they (the police) are parading themselves as unfriendly beggars, money extorters, intimidators, and so on (particularly to the underprivileged), and as Such, the public do not have confidence in them. White, et al (1991) explained that the relationship between the police and members of the public in Nigeria have tended to be characterized by deep-rooted conflict, prejudice, corruption, and violence. In the same line of thought, findings of Hills (2008) revealed that despite decades of police assistance and the recent introduction of reform plans, Nigeria's public police remain notoriously brutal and corrupt. She attributes that to many factors including a challenging environment; under-resourced others incapable of effectively policing the most populous poverty-stricken Black nation on earth; high rates of urbanization and a volatile underclass of unemployed youths; the lack of social cohesion and traditional control mechanisms; insufficient thought to public order strategy, unlawful arrests and detention; slow response of the police during widespread rioting; and excessive use of discriminate force. If this remains the public perception of the police as an organization then it would continue to encounter difficulties in its numerous tasks of enforcing law and order and ensuring the security of life and property.

 

Corruption is a major factor that plays out in the bad Police -Public Relations. Nigeria has a widespread reputation for corruption. In 2000, it appeared at the top of Transparency

International's list of the most corrupt countries and it continues to be regarded as a bastion of fraud, graft, and deceit (Transparency International, 2009, Smith, 2010). In Nigeria today, the problems of development are not necessarily due to the scarcity of the natural factors of

 

production but due to corruption which has eaten deep into the fabric of Nigerian society, and at present, one of the greatest obstacles to national development (Abdullahi 2002:9). In the language of cause and effect, corruption is often portrayed as an independent variable inhibiting the desired and supposedly dependent outcomes of democracy and development, including improving health outcomes (Transparency International, 2006).

 

Findings of Hills (2008) confirmed that corruption is endemic at every level, with the police regularly heading the 'Transparency International's list of the most corrupt institutions in Nigeria. An average police man in Nigeria is exploited right from his/her recruitment. S/he might not be the best fit for the job, but paying-off can get him there. At the police training colleges, the quality and quantity of food they are served is nothing to write home about; the allowances are not assured of being fully paid and as at when due; during passing-out bribes may be given for "better" posting, before and upon arriving at respective areas of primary asS1gnment may attract a continuation of the trend; and even "returns" might be solicited to the senior ranking officers. At retirement, no one can guarantee that entitlements will be given without giving out bribes. In the event a police otficer dies while in service, the so-called "commissioner's regret allowance" is not enough for the deceased officers tamily to sustain a living for the period of mourning, needless say there's a befitting burial, if the deccased's culture permits. These frustrations usually contribute to the increased corrupt practices of the police- something that is in the fabrics of the police, at the best in the public's eyes.

 

In line with the above and by implication therefore, unless and until there are trust, confidence, and cooperation, the current deteriorating relationship between the police and the public in Nigeria will continue and reverting to smooth relationship will certainly be in vain. It is necessary for the police to evolve ways by which the members of the public would have confidence in its operations and activities, recognize its importance to achieve its goal of maintaining a secure, peaceful and orderly society.

 

1.3 Research Questions

In line with the specific objective, the following questions will be raised to serve as a guide to the study;

 

  1. What is the public perception of people towards the police?
  2. What are the impacts of police public relation?
  3. What are the problems of police public relation?
  4. How can police public relation be enhanced?

 

1.4 Aim and Objectives of the Study

The broad aim of the study is to examine police-community relation in Kano Municipal, and the specific objectives are;

 

  1. To determine the public perception towards police.
  2. To examine the impact of police public relation
  3. To identify the problems of police public relation.
  4. Recommend measures to enhance police public relation

 

1.5 Significance of the Study

 

The need for the study arises from the realization that good police public relations are a catalyst for the image and performance of the Nigerian police. A study on the analysis of police public relations is a step in the right directions. The study possesses some academic value and would be of interest to student's individuals, academics, police officers and the general public.

 

 

 

It will also be a contribution to knowledge and literature on the subject matters as well as a guide for further study.

 

It is hoped that the result of the study will be an eye opener to the nature of relationship between the police and public a veritable material to the Nigerian police force in solving their image problem and enhancing police public relations.

 

1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study

This study will focus on police-community relations in Kano Municipal, Kano State. Therefore, the study 1s limited, in terms of conceptual coverage putting in mind factors such as timeframe.

 

1.7 Operationalization of Key Concepts

The Police: The police are law enforcement agency created by government to protect lite and property of its citizens.

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